In the 17th century, the doctrine of the land movement was condemned by a Catholic court. One hundred years ago, the lengthening of the time required by geology worried religious, Protestants and Catholics. And today, the theory of evolution is such a present stone. These are just a few cases that illustrate a general fact. On the one hand, even if some beliefs are not obvious, religious faith is not necessarily of this nature. Many believers associate it with different types of preliminary evidence, such as arguments for the existence of God, personal experiences of divine presence, or eyewitnesses to other miracles that Coyne rejects, but not completely refuted. On the other hand, we accept certain unproven beliefs – such as the belief that we are awake and that we do not dream – as reliable, although we do not have rigorous empirical evidence to confirm or contradict them. And this also applies to the beliefs that underlie science. The predictions of science are indeed based on experience. But the belief that the experience of the past is a reliable preacher for the future – the belief that the world will behave as it did in the next moment – is not a trust based on experience.
As David Hume said, this is a hypothesis that is necessary for that trust. And it is interesting to note that the call for past experience to justify such assertions only raises the issue. Theistic evolution seeks to reconcile Christian convictions and science by accepting the scientific understanding of the Earth`s age and the process of evolution. It includes a set of beliefs, including viewpoints, described as an evolutionary creationism that accepts some knowledge of modern science, but also perpetuates classical religious teachings about God and creation in the Christian context.  This last section will focus on two examples of scientific and religious work that have attracted attention in recent literature and which will likely be important in the years to come: the ethics of evolution and the implications of the cognitive science of religion. Other areas of increasing interest are theistic multiverses, consciousness, artificial intelligence and transhumanism. Religious psychologists and sociologists have also begun to doubt that religious beliefs are rooted in irrationality, psychopathology and other atypical psychological states, as James (1902) and other early psychologists had assumed.